The ultimate sugarcane farming guide

Sugarcane is a major cash crop worldwide, and sugarcane farming is common in Asian countries like India, Pakistan and China, but Brazil is the biggest country in sugarcane production. These are few big countries in the production of sugarcane. Sugarcane is used to produce sugar, but in Pakistan and India, mostly 60% of sugarcane are used to produce gure and shaker ( local words). Different industries prepare their products with sugarcane, so sugarcane is the valuable and best crop to grow up.

Climates

Tropical hot sunny areas are the best ones to grow sugarcane. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical regions with temperature varying from 20-35 degrees celsius. Sugarcane plants remain for a whole year, and they grow in winter and summers according to their growing stages.

Soil requirements for sugarcane farming

Sugarcane can be grown on wide ranges of soil like well-drained, deep and clay loams. The soil must have moisture maintaining capacities. But is always necessary to test your soil before growing sugarcane and fill up all your soil requirements. The best ph level of the soil is between 5-9, and you can use different applications to adjust this.

Best varieties to grow

Here are few common and best varieties that are grown mostly and have a high yield rate:

  • Louisiana Striped
  • Louisiana Ribbon
  • Co 98014
  • Co 0118
  • Bl 4
  • Co 0124
  • Co 0237
  • Hs 14
  • Co 05009.
  • Coj 85
  • Coh 119
  • Bf 129
  • Co 0238
  • Hs 12
  • Co 05011

Land preparation

Land preparation is always being an essential process to grow any crop. To grow sugarcane, it is necessary to do deep ploughing about 20-25cm three to four-time. Mix up cow dunk compost while ploughing; otherwise, if you don’t have cow dunk compost, you can put cow manure at least one month before land preparations. Ensure that all the weeds are extracted from your field and level well for better irrigation.

Ploughing also depends on soil conditions. Make sure that your soil doesn’t get powder shape, and then it may affect the germination rate.

Whole planting process

Best season or time to grow

Sugarcane can be grown in two seasons, in fall from September to November and in spring from February to march. It may be different for one week or two. It depends upon the climate and temperature of the selected region. Sugarcane almost takes one year to be mature, and fall planting can give you a high yield instead of spring. Make sure that you are planting at the right time, and beware of late planting because it can greatly affect the quantity of sugarcane.

Seed Rate

The seed rate of sugarcane varies according to your selected varieties. A required distance is necessary to get a good and healthy product. You can grow thin varieties closer to each other instead of thick varieties. It cost about 50k-70k sugarcanes for one area, and it is different for every variety.

Planting process

Cut the sugarcane into small pieces and make sure that every part has at least one bud with it. After doing this also process, make sure to put your seeds in hot water more than 45 degrees Celsius for at least 30-40mins with fungicide. That will help your plant to grow safely, and it will grow well and fastly.

Sugarcanes are grown in the shape of rows, and the distance between rows should be at least 2.5-3 feet. It depends on your selected varieties. Put the sugarcane at a depth of at least 3-5 cm and cover it with soil well. According to a research agency, it’s noted that “covering seeds with more than 4cm can affect the growth rate. The cover seed for at least 2cm to get good results and to make your seed and plant safe from damages.”

Fertilizers for sugarcane farming

Sugarcane plants need a good amount of fertilizers like nitrogen and potassium. After soil testing, you will come to know about the need for fertilizers requirements. Add urea, nitrogen and potassium according to the need of soil. Organic compost is also beneficial, and you can also use it while field preparation and with the earthing up process in a limited amount.

Is earthing up necessary during sugarcane farming?

Eating is important to protect your plants from the lodging process. The lodging process may occur when the cane is in full health or at its best-growing stage. It may occur according to the conditions of your plant with their time period. Massive crops get more lodging issues, and if you are late in fertilizers, then your plant may become soft or juice free.

Sugarcane weeds and their control

Sugarcane plants remain in the soil for at least 3 to 4 years, and every type of weeds grow up there. And all the weeds are a big source to get more diseases and also effect on the product. So always take action at the proper time, and you can use any chemical fertilizer to remove weeds from the plant at the proper time.

Irrigation system

Irrigation is required to get good growth of sugarcane, but it depends upon the moisture level and according to the soil conditions of the field. Season water is required almost every 10 days in monsoon, but the irrigation process should be done fast in hot seasons with hot wind. Avoid water lagging, and you can do irrigation after 15 days when plants are fully grown. Drip irrigation and surface irrigation are the two best used for sugarcane farming.

Diseases of sugarcane

Many different diseases can attack sugarcane crops and affect their growth and product, and It will also destroy your plant.

  • White smut
  • early shoot borer
  • white grub
  • termites
  • root borer
  • Pyrilla
  • Red root
  • Top brorer
  • red rot

Many chemicals are available to protect your sugarcane plants and their roots from this disease, and you can use them while mixing it up with water or by spraying on the plant it depends on the disease.

Harvesting process

Harvesting should be done at a proper time according to the conditions of the plant. The best time to harvest is when the cane gets fully ripe, but late harvesting can also be dangerous. Different varieties have different harvesting times according to their thickness and height. Cut cane from the bottom of it to get more weight and juice. After harvesting, it’s necessary to make their product with time, or you can shift it in any sugar factory.

Stop irrigation at least 20 days before harvesting sugarcane

If you want to grow the same remaining part of cane available in the soil after cutting, then it’s necessary to do good ploughing and add a good amount of organic compost or cow dunk.

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